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R.O. Terminology and Water Terms.
Water usage through out the world.
Water, Water Every Where, But not a drop to drink!
Energy Saving SWRO Systems, How do we do it?
Low Cost "Do it Yourself" SWRO for you Home or Bungalow
How Reverse Osmosis Works

A semipermeable membrane, like the membrane of a cell wall or a bladder, is selective about what it allows to pass through, and what it prevents from passing. These membranes in general pass water very easily because of its small molecular size; but also prevent many other contaminants from passing by trapping them. Water will typically be present on both sides of the membrane, with each side having a different concentration of dissolved minerals.

Since the water is the less concentrated solution it seeks to dilute the more concentrated solution and water will pass through the membrane from the lower concentration side to the greater concentration side. Eventually, osmotic pressure (seen in the diagram below as the pressure created by the difference in water levels) will counter the diffusion process exactly, and equilibrium will form.

The process of Reverse Osmosis forces water with a greater concentration of contaminants (the source water) into a tank containing water with an extremely low concentration of contaminants (the processed water). High water pressure on the source side is used to "reverse" the natural osmotic process, with the semi-permeable membrane still permitting the passage of water while rejecting most of the other contaminants. The specific process through which this occurs is called ion exclusion, in which a concentration of ions at the membrane surface from a barrier that allows other water molecules to pass through while excluding other substances.

Semi-permeable membranes have come a long way from the natural pig bladders used in the earlier osmosis experiments. Before the 1960's, these membranes were too inefficient, very expensive, and unreliable for practical applications outside the laboratory. Modern advances in synthetic materials have generally solved these problems, allowing membranes to become highly efficient at rejecting contaminants, and making them tough enough to withstand the greater pressures necessary for efficient operation.

Even with these advances, the "reject" water on the source side of a Reverse Osmosis (R.O.) system must be periodically flushed in order to keep it from becoming so concentrated that it forms a scale on the membrane itself .Reverse Osmosis systems also typically require a carbon prefilter for the reduction of chlorine, which can damage an R.O. membrane; and a sediment pre-filter is always required to ensure that fine suspended materials in the source water do not permanently clog the membrane. Hardness reduction, either through the use of water softening for residential units or chemical softening for industrial use, may also be desirable in hard water areas.

Conclusion

With the IROP pre-engineered equipment package, we can be assured of predictable performance and uniform quality with single supplier responsibility. Despite the IROP’s great improvement in the economics of small SWRO systems, the technology is ev olutionary rather than rev olutionary. Hence, higher reliability and low cost can be expected in the future.

Wehave produce over 400 Reverse Osmosis Systems, which are in use through out the world. Over 4,000 of our Local supplier’s vessels are in use in systems all over the world. T hey are also the only designer and manufacturer of ASME High Pressure Fiberglass R.O. vessels in Asia And ship vessels all over the world. We are the only designer and manufacturer of High Efficiency “Poseidon™”Salt Water Recovery R.O. Systems in S.E. Asia.

At present with our fully automatic energy efficient Salt Water R.O. system water production costs are at or below 16 baht a cubic meter. Cost may vary depending of local rates.

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